The Science Behind
Canaria utilizes what is known as Transmissive PPG, which is the technology currently used in intensive care units to monitor patients’ vital signs. The approach applies multiple light spectrums (Infrared, Red, and Green) shone through the skin to a photosensor on the other side of an appendage (such as a finger or earlobe). This allows for minimal light interference which is what enables greater accuracy. This method increases fidelity in the data collected because different light spectrums are absorbed by the skin in different ways. The sensors read the amount of blood in the underlying tissue 100 times a second which illustrates the different phases of heart function.
Canaria Technologies Predictive Biometrics Device
Canaria’s 5th generation medical-grade wearable device the Canaria-V Earpiece measures PPG, skin temperature, movement, and environmental data. From these primary sensor readings, we derive multiple core metrics such as blood oxygen saturation, breathing rate, and Heart Rate Variability. We utilise combinations of these metrics to build out our early warning alarms using proprietary biometric algorithms. For example, Heart Rate Variability is one of the most reliable indicators of Cognitive Fatigue, while skin temperature is an important feature when detecting the onset of heat stress.
What is a Predictive Biometrics System?
Predictive Biometric Systems follow the same principles as most other data-centric predictive systems. Systems such as new asset management failure monitoring, weather prediction, and financial asset value forecasting. Systems that require large amounts of very accurate historical and real-time data drive neural networks to produce reliable results.
There are two main types of Predictive Biometric Systems, both of which may be considered early-warning systems :
Set-Value, where predictive systems rely upon a number set by a heuristic baseline to activate an alarm. They require less compute power out of the two types and are a required precursor to stepping to a self-learning system.
Self-Learning systems adapt to individualized thresholds and improve the more an individual uses them.
Many different types of biometric data may be used to create these systems. Canaria Technologies primarily uses PPG readings (pulse plethysmography: which measures the amount of blood in tissue) from the ear to allow for high levels of accuracy in a form factor that is comfortable and unobtrusive for the user.
The Science Behind
Pulse Plethysmography (or PPG) works by emitting light into a person’s skin and measuring the amount of absorption to identify activity within the circulatory system. It is the technology implemented by some of the most common wearable devices where the green light is shone into a user’s skin and then the amount reflected back is recorded. However, this approach is susceptible to inaccuracy due to:
Melanin (responsible for skin pigmentation) in a person’s skin is a very good absorber of green light, which means darker, tattooed, freckled, or skin affected by any other normal physiologic variation will produce inaccurate readings.
Increased light exposure due to movement of the user’s arm.
Movement of the device on the wrist affecting the amount of light absorbed by the photosensors.